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Humanities 110 : Philosophy

Concept

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? 

Check out the video below for more information about Philosophy. 

Video

Philosophers you need to know

Aristotle

A student of Plato in Ancient Greece, Aristotle contributed to numerous areas including metaphysics, logic, poetry, linguistics, and government. He is one of the most well-known philosophers in history.

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Plato

As you have already seen, Plato was Aristotle’s teacher, and he is famous for starting the Academy in Athens. This was the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Confucius

A Chinese philosopher who lived about 500 BC. He focused on relationships and how the family was an important and necessary part of society. 

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Socrates

You've already met Socrates' most famous student, Plato, but Socrates himself was a very well known philosopher. He is famous for the Socratic Methods in which a series of questions are asked in order to lead the listener to a conclusion. 

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Thomas Aquinas

Having combined Greek thought with Christian theology, the Italian philosopher and theologian Aquinas is known as the most famous philosopher of Europe’s Middle Ages.

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Voltaire

A French philosopher of the Enlightenment period, Voltaire drew attention to human suffering, criticized organized religion, and advocated for the use of reason.

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Siddhartha Gautama Buddha

Possibly the most famous Indian philosopher, Buddha concluded that all human suffering is caused by the desire for permanence in a world where nothing is permanent.

Ayn Rand

Born in Russia but having moved to US, Ayn Rand was a strong advocate of reason and laissez-faire capitalism. It meant he believed in form of capitalism in which the government doesn't interfere. Her ideas have strongly shaped modern libertarianism and conservatism

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Baron de Montesquieu

 French philosopher who contributed to political philosophy and greatly influenced the constitutions of the United States and many other nations. 

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